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Rubin (1993) suggested pub lishing fully synthetic microdata instead of the real data, with the obvious advantage of zero disclosure risk. The released synthetic data should repro duce the essential features of confidential microdata. This approach is broadly known as the counterfactual approach to causal inference (Morgan and Winship, 2007), and more precisely as the Rubin causal model. By definition, the outcome on the alternative treatment is always missing, so we cannot calculate the treatment efiect directly. This restriction is, however, lifted if the missing potential outcomes are imputed. Jin and Rubin (2008) have put this idea in to practice to correct for noncompliance in randomized experiments. Multiple imputation of missing potential outcomes can also be useful to correct for imbalances in observational studies. Heitjan and Rubin (1991) proposed a general theory for data coarsening processes that includes rounding, heaping, censoring and missing data as special cases. Heitjan and Rubin (1990) provided an application where age is misreported, where the amount of misre porting increases with age itself. Such problems with the data can be handled by multiple imputation of true age, given reported age and other personal fac to rs. Heitjan (1993) discussed various other biomedical examples and an application to data from the Stanford Heart Transplantation Program. The use of multiple imputation to deal with coarsened data is attractive, but the number of applications to real data. Rubin and Schenker (1986a) considered file matching as a missing data problem, and suggested multiple imputation as a solution. Moriarity and Scheuren (2003) developed modifications that were found to improve the procedure. The imputation techniques proposed to date were developed from the mul tivariate normal model. This techique can perform file matching for mixed continuous-discrete data under any data coded prior. An alternative is to cut up a long questionnaire in to sepa rate forms, each of which is considerably shorter than the full version. The split questionnaire design (Raghunathan and Grizzle, 1995) poses certain re strictions on the selection of the forms, thus enabling analysis by multiple imputation. The loss of eficiency depends on the strengths of the relations between form and can be compensated for by Conclusion 257 a larger initial sample size. Multiple imputation has been suggested as a way to correct for this bias (Harel and Zhou, 2006; De Groot et al. The classic Begg-Greenes method may be used only if the missing data mechanism is known and simple. The relations between the variables need to be maintained if imputations are to be plausible. There is, however, not yet a lot of experience about how to ensure consistency, and software options are still limited. New types of derived variables and imputation under constraints will call for new techniques and more fiexible software. In practice, conditionally specified imputa 258 Flexible Imputation of Missing Data tion models are nearly always incompatible. Yet, this fact does not seem to preclude useful and statistically appropriate imputations, as judged by simu lation. This suggest that the conditions under which the Gibbs sampler can provide proper imputations can be relaxed. An imputation model is specified for each block, and the algorithm iterates over the blocks. This enables easier spec ification of blocks of variables that are structurally related, such as dummy variables, semi-continuous variables, bracketed responses, compositions, item subsets, and so on.

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Test of eye movements (patient will be unable to follow a moving visual target accurately). In the patient in the above vignette, which of the following features would be indicative of a good prognosis with this diseasefi The patient in question 208 becomes very agitated in the emergency room, screaming that the nurses were there to kill her and that she had to escape. The patient in the above vignette was admitted and started on a daily dose of fluphenazine. After discharge from the hospital, she was kept on a low dose of the medication for 6 weeks. She showed only a minimal response to the drug, even after it was raised to a moderate dosage level. For the past 3 weeks, she has become con vinced that she is dying of cancer and is rotting on the inside of her body. Also, in the past 2 weeks she has been hearing a voice calling her name when no one is around. A 19-year-old man is brought to the physician by his parents after he called them from college, terrified that the Mafia was after him. He occasionally hears the voices of two men talk ing about him when no one is around. His roommate states that for the past 2 months the patient has been increasingly withdrawn and suspicious. A 36-year-old woman is brought to the psychiatrist by her husband because for the past 8 months she has refused to go out of the house, believ ing that the neighbors are trying to harm her. She is afraid that if they see her they will hurt her, and she finds many small bits of evidence to support this. A 35-year-old woman has lived in a state psychiatric hospital for the past 10 years. She spends most of her day rocking, muttering softly to her self, or looking at her reflection in a small mirror. She needs help with dressing and showering, and she often giggles and laughs for no apparent reason. A 20-year-old woman is brought to the emergency room by her fam ily because they have been unable to get her to eat or drink anything for the past 2 days. The patient, although awake, is completely unresponsive both vocally and nonverbally. Her family reports that during the previous 7 months she became increasingly withdrawn, socially isolated, and bizarre; often speaking to people no one else could see. A 21-year-old man is brought to the emergency room by his parents because he has not slept, bathed, or eaten in the past 3 days. Six weeks prior to the emergency room visit, their son became convinced that a fellow student was stealing his thoughts and making him unable to learn his school material. In the past 2 weeks, they have noticed that their son has become depressed and has s to pped taking care of himself, including bathing, eating, and getting dressed. He complains of not being able to concentrate, a low energy level, and feeling suicidal.

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The relationship between work-life reconciliation and the intentions of women and men to have children is examined, including analysis of the specific division of housework as one of the main predic to rs of the intentions of Lithuanians to have children and the dominant gender ideology in the country. Maternity leave (conge de maternite) (responsibility of the Ministry of Social Security) Length of leave fi Sixteen weeks: eight weeks before the birth and eight weeks after. Payment and funding fi Hundred per cent of earnings up to a ceiling equal to five times the minimum social wage in Luxembourg ( 9,007. Eligibility fi All insured persons, including self-employed, who have belonged to a social security scheme for at least six months preceding the commencement of leave. If the birth takes place before the expected date, the part of the pre-natal period not taken is added to the post-natal period. If the birth takes place after the extended date, the post-natal period is still eight weeks. Parental leave (conge parental) (responsibility of the Ministry of Family Affairs and Integration) Length of leave fi Six months per parent. The first parent who takes the leave must take it following Maternity leave, except in the case of lone parents. The second period of leave may be taken by the other parent until the child is five years old. Eligibility fi All employees are eligible if they have worked for at least one year with the same employer (for at least 20 hours per week), and if they take care of their child at home. Leave may be extended under certain circumstances; for example, in the case of a disabled child, to four days; and for a very serious and exceptional illness defined by law (such as cancer in its final state), up to 52 weeks in a reference period of 104 weeks. The leave is paid and funded by the National Health Fund (La Caisse nationale de sante). Relationship between leave policy and early childhood education and care policy the maximum period of paid post-natal leave available in Luxembourg is 14 months, but most of this is low paid; leave paid at a high rate runs for only eight weeks. Since 2009, parents of children up to 13 years of age who are in primary education and reside in Luxembourg, can use the Childcare Service Vouchers (le cheque-service accueil) provided by the Ministry of Family and Integration, which reduce the cost to families of using 140 a number of socio-educational service hours. Maternity leave As Maternity leave is obliga to ry, all employed women should take up leave. Parental leave Presently there is only limited information on the proportion of eligible parents using Parental leave. The estimated number of potential beneficiaries who used their right to Parental leave in 1999-2001 (the two years following the introduction of Parental leave in Luxembourg) was 30 per cent 5. However, the report does not make it clear exactly how these figures have been estimated. Another source of information taking in to account eligibility is a working paper by 142 Zhelyazkova (forthcoming). The study investigates the work-family trajec to ries of parents working in Luxembourg who had a child in 2003 and who were eligible to take Parental leave. The analysis shows that 13 per cent of the eligible fathers who had a child in 2003 used Parental leave before their child turned five years, the maximum period within which Parental leave can be taken in Luxembourg. In comparison, 66 per cent of mothers who were eligible used their right to Parental leave. The majority of mothers who to ok Parental leave used it immediately after their Maternity leave ended. The annual report of the Luxembourg Ministry of Family and Integration provides a complete 143 overview of the usage of the Parental leave covering years 1999-2012. The to tal number of users of Parental leave has increased markedly over the last thirteen years; at the end of 1999, only 1,323 parents were on Parental leave, compared to 4,025 at the end of 2012. In particular, the number of men using leave has increased dramatically, from only 90 at the end of 1999 to 927 in 2012.

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Manual removal of nits after successful treatment 1 American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on School Health and Committee on Infectious Diseases. Removal of nits is tedious and time consuming but may be attempted for aesthetic reasons, to decrease diagnostic confu sion, or to improve effcacy. Bedmates of infested people should be treated prophylactically at the same time as the infested household members and contacts. Children should not be excluded or sent home early from school because of head lice. Parents of children with infestation (ie, at least 1 live, crawling louse) should be notifed and informed that their child should be treated. Egg cases farther from the scalp are easier to discover, but these tend to be empty (hatched) or nonviable and, thus, are of no consequence. Head lice only rarely are transferred via fomites from shared headgear, clothing, combs, or bed ding. If desired, hats, bedding, clothing, and to wels worn or used by the infested person in the 2-day period just before treatment is started can be machine-washed and dried using the hot water and hot air cycles, because lice and eggs are killed by exposure for 5 minutes to temperatures greater than 53. Environmental insecticide sprays increase chemical exposure of household members and have not been helpful in the control of head lice. Treatment of dogs, cats, or other pets is not indicated, because they do not play a role in transmission of human head lice. Bites manifest as small erythema to us macules, papules, and excoriations primarily on the trunk. In heavily bitten areas, typically around the mid-section, the skin can become thickened and discolored. Under these conditions, body lice can spread rapidly through direct contact or contact with contaminated clothing or bedding. Body lice live in clothes or bedding, lay their eggs on or near the seams of clothing, and move to the skin to feed. In contrast with head lice, body lice are well-recognized vec to rs of disease (eg, epidemic typhus, trench fever, epidemic relapsing fever, and bacil lary angioma to sis). The incubation period from laying eggs to hatching of the frst nymph is approxi mately 1 to 2 weeks, depending on ambient temperature. Lice mature and are capable of reproducing 9 to 19 days after hatching, depending on whether infested clothing is removed for sleeping. Adult and nymphal body lice seldom are seen on the body, because they generally are sequestered in clothing. Pediculicides usually are not necessary if materials are laundered at least weekly (see Drugs for Parasitic Infections, p 848). Some people with much body hair may require full-body treatment with a pediculicide, because lice and eggs may adhere to body hair. Close contacts should be examined and treated appropriately; clothing and bedding should be laundered. The parasite most frequently is found in the pubic region, but infestation can involve the eyelashes, eyebrows, beard, axilla, peri anal area, and rarely, the scalp. A characteristic sign of heavy pubic lice infestation is the presence of bluish or slate-colored macules (maculae ceruleae) on the chest, abdomen, or thighs. Pubic lice on the eyelashes or eyebrows of children may be evidence of sexual abuse, although other modes of transmission are possible. Infested people should be examined for other sexually transmitted infections (see Sexually Transmitted Infections in Adolescents and Children, p 176). Adult pubic lice can survive away from a host for up to 36 hours, and their eggs can remain viable for up to 10 days under suitable environmental conditions. The incubation period from the laying of eggs to the hatching of the frst nymph is approximately 6 to 10 days.

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