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Broad-Spectrum Adaptations Re-examined: Hunter-Gatherer Responses to Late Glacial Environmental Changes in the Eastern Adriatic. Fruhe Floten und die Ausbildung der Musikalischen Horge wohnheiten des Palaolithischen Menschen. Palinolos ke in antrakotomske raziskave sedimentov iz paleolitske postaje Divje babe I (with English summary). Upper Pleistocene hominid evolution in south central Europe:A review of the evidence and analysis of trends. Ljubljana: Znanstvenoraziskovalni center Slovenske akademije znanosti in umetnosti. In this view, the many structural features shared between music and language are the result of their emergence from a joint evolutionary precursor rather than from fortuitous par allelism or from one function begetting the other. Music and language are seen as reciprocal specializations of a dual-natured referential emotive communica tive precursor, whereby music emphasizes sound as emotive meaning and lan guage emphasizes sound as referential meaning. The musilanguage stage must have at least three properties for it to qualify as both a precursor and scaffold for the evolution of music and language: lexical tone, combinatorial phrase for mation, and expressive phrasing mechanisms. Beyond Music-Language Metaphors Theories of music origin come in two basic varieties: structural models and functional models. Structural models look to the acoustic properties of music as outgrowths of homologous precursor functions, whereas functional models look to the adaptive roles of music as determinants of its structural design features. Before discussing music from an evolutionary perspective, it is impor tant to note that two different modes of perceiving, producing, and responding to musical sound patterns exist, one involving emotive meaning and the other involving referential meaning. The acoustic mode refers to the immediate, on-line, emotive aspect of sound perception and produc tion. The vehicle mode refers to the off-line, referential form of sound perception and produc tion. It is a representational mode of music operation that results from the in uence of human linguistic capacity on music cognition. This distinction between the acoustic and vehicle modes addresses an important issue in contemporary musicology: the con ict between abso lutists, who view music as pure sound-emotion, and referentialists, who 272 Steven Brown view it as pure sound-reference (discussed in Feld and Fox 1994). Seeing music in terms of the acoustic mode-vehicle mode duality permits rec onciliation of the two viewpoints by suggesting that two different modes of perceiving, producing and responding to musical sound patterns exist, one involving emotive meaning and one referential meaning. These two modes act in parallel and are alternative interpretations of the same acoustic stimulus. The very notion of a vehicle mode for music (or of referentialism) leads immediately to the question of the extent to which music functions like a language. Serious consideration of this question dates back at least to the eighteenth century if not earlier (Thomas 1995). No doubt the question hinges on the criteria by which one calls a given system a lan guage, and this has led many thinkers to clarify notions of musical syntax and semantics (Bernstein 1976; Sloboda 1985; Clarke 1989; Aiello 1994; Swain 1995, 1996). The reciprocal question deals with the extent to which speech exploits musical properties for the purposes of linguistic com munication in the form of speech melody and rhythm. But, whereas the metaphors go both ways, from language to music and back again, it is important to realize that these accounts are only ever seen as metaphors. Concepts such as musical language (Swain 1997) and speech melody are never taken beyond the domain of metaphor into the domain of mech anism. That is why, to me, this metaphor making misses the point that music and language have strong underlying biological similarities in addition to equally strong differences. Converging evidence from several lines of investigation reveals that the similarities between music and lan guage are not just the stuff of metaphors but a re ection of something much deeper. Given the extensive practice of metaphor making in linguistics and musicology, how can we best think about the similarities that exist between music and language A discussion of gesture, which is relevant to the evolution of both language and dance, will be presented at a future time. The notion that musical phrase structures (can) have a hier archical organization similar to that of linguistic sentences, an idea pre sented elegantly by Lerdahl and Jackendoff (1983), must be viewed as pure parallelism. In other words, the hierarchical organization of pitches and pulses in a Bach chorale is only loosely related to the hierarchical organization of words in a sentence exactly because the constituent ele ments, and thus the phrases themselves, are so completely different.
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The female thought to have occurred naturally by a similar pro foxes have higher serotonin levels (known to decrease cess. Domesticated foxes show an unusually high incidence of foppy ears, shortened legs and tails, curled-up tails, and a star blaze. Hare and his colleagues food than did chimpanzes and may have undergone a (2012) suggest that a similar process has ben at work similar self-domestication process. Unlike their chimpanze ancestors, bono Henrike Moll and Michael Tomasello (2007) have bos will share food with unfamiliar conspecifcs (Hare & suggested that certain aspects of cognition, which they Kwetuenda, 2010) and will spontaneously cooperate on consider to be unique to humans (the cognitive skills a novel instrumental task (for a food reward). Like dogs of shared goals, joint atention, joint intentions, and but unlike chimps, bonobos are responsive to human cooperative communication), were driven by or were gaze direction (Hermann et al. This cooperation is ers suggest that because of their geographical location, neded to create such things as complex technologies, bonobos had less competition among themselves for cultural institutions, and systems of symbols. White spotting (star depigmentation) on the head (top row) and foppy ears (bottom row): A: Horse (Equus caballus); B: Cow (Bos taurus); C: Pig (Sus scrofa domestica); D: Sheep (Ovis); E: Dog (Canis familiaris); F: Rabbit (Oryctolagus cunticulus). If punishment is of cooperation has ben difcult to explain fom an evo allowed, however, cooperation increases (Figure 14. In defance of semingly rational behavior, Trivers (1971; 2011) was the frst to explain how altru we humans engage in punishment even in one-time en istic behavior could be a successful strategy. For instance, in the Ultimatum economic game, Pinker (2012) succinctly puts it, frst conducted by Ariel Rubinstein (1982) and repeated in various forms, people will punish non-cooperators It can be explained by an expectation of reciproc at personal cost, even in a one-shot game. One person is given those that are most likely to exploit them, choose some money, say $20, and he has to split it with the other to interact with partners who are least likely to player, but he determines the percentage split. The other f e-ride, and cooperate and punish more, and fe player determines if she will accept the amount that has ride less, when their reputations are on the line. Both players get to kep whatever One way cooperation can arise is through the pun amount of money is setled upon. Both theoretical models fered the money refuses the ofer, however, then neither and experimental evidence show that in the absence of gets any. In a rational world, the player who ofers the punishment, cooperation cannot sustain itself in the pres money ned only ofer a penny and the person who gets ence of fe-riders and collapses. Fre-riding individuals ofered the money should take any ofer, because that is are those who do not cooperate or contribute, but exploit the only way she will come out ahead. Tat, however, is the eforts of others: They incur no costs and produce no not how people react. For example, in the Public Goods game, each and people will accept the money only if they think it is participant is given a number of tokens. In so doing, however, they actually incur a loss total of communal tokens, multiplies by a factor greater themselves. Why, in one than one but fewer than the number of participants, and shot encounters, are people overly generous The optimum people who have received lowball ofers punish at a cost strategy for the group would be for each person to con to themselves They also With punishment Without punishment found that suppression of this area increased 20 selfsh responses to unfair ofers, suggesting 18 that this area normally inhibits self-interest 16 (taking any ofer) and reduces the impact of 14 the selfsh urges on the decision-making pro 12 cesses. Tus, the right dorsolateral prefontal 10 cortex plays a key role in implementing be 8 haviors that are fair. Real punishment activated 10 the dorsal striatum, which has ben implicat 8 ed in the processing of goal-oriented rewards. Meanwhile, 0 symbolic punishment did not activate the dor 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 sal striatum. Can you have cooperation and account During the frst six periods, punishment of other group is not allowed; but during abilit without punishment In both cases, cooperation increases when there is an opportunity to punish non-cooperators.
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Acute bacterial otitis media produces a purulent middle ear effusion, which can often produce a spontaneous tympanic membrane perforation. In these cases, a preexisting history of otitis media is not always present, although the history and physical examination might indicate an upper respiratory tract infection or inflammation (as from allergic rhinitis). The physical examination will clearly show the abnormal findings in the middle ear. Acute otitis media is probably the most common cause of isolated facial paralysis in children. Generally, patients with cholesteatoma will have a pre-existing history of hearing loss and often a long history of intermittent foul-smelling, purulent otorrhea. Cholesteatomas grow slowly, and sometimes can be present for years without causing many symptoms. Facial neuromas (schwannomas of the facial nerve) are rare, and their occurrence is roughly 1:1,000,000 persons per year. These are benign tumors of the facial nerve that grow slowly and produce a slowly progressive (over several months, not days) form of facial paralysis. Malignant tumors of the skin or parotid gland can pro duce facial paralysis either by compression or perineural invasion. A careful history and physical examination of the involved area will usually uncover this pathology when present. Other special considerations in facial paralysis involve its bilateral occurrence. Bilateral facial paralysis has a limited number of causes, principally Lyme disease or Guillain-Barre syndrome. This pain can linger for up to 1 year, despite resolution of the active infection, and is called postherpetic neuralgia. Although steroids might reduce the pain and might improve the chance for facial recovery, the possible risks of worsening an immunocom promised state or of dissemination of the herpes infection to the brain (herpes encephalitis) or eye (ocular herpes) must be considered. Hearing loss and vestibular symptoms can occur in patients with Ramsay Hunt syndrome. The use of both forms of medications (antiviral and steroids) has been shown to improve return of facial function compared to either medication alone or to placebo. Facial nerve decompression has been advocated for Bell paralysis for several reasons: (1) the facial nerve has the longest bony course of any nerve, peripheral or cra nial; (2) this bony confinement does not allow the nerve to swell; (3) this swelling in a confined space produces ischemia of the nerve; (4) poor regeneration occurs once ischemia takes place; and (5) very limited and unsatisfactory methods are available to rehabilitate the paralyzed face. Regardless of cause, patients with facial paralysis need special care of the eye on the affected side to avoid permanent vision loss. Simple eye care consisting of artificial tears every hour while awake and ocular lubricant (Lacri-Lube) ointment at night with eye taping can avoid per manent loss of vision. Most cases of facial nerve weakness can be fully evaluated and managed by primary care physicians. These patients demand close attention and should be seen once or twice a week until resolu tion is seen. A close exam ination of his facial movements indicates loss of the nasolabial fold and inability to raise the upper lip on that side. This disorder is caused by reactivation of varicella-zoster virus and is treated with antiviral medications and steroids. Inadequately treated zoster infections can lead to poor recovery of facial function and postherpetic neuralgia. An isolated facial nerve branch paralysis is caused by malignancy until proven otherwise. Their location in the cerebellopontine angle would produce whole face weakness, and not an isolated branch weakness as described. However she became concerned when she acutely developed ptosis last month after being on call. They all have occurred while she has been post call and have improved by the morning.
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The gray mater is composed of neuronal cell bod It includes the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems. The larg the parasympathetic system uses acetylcholine as a est of all the fber tracts is the main commissure crossing neurotransmitter. It is responsible for decreasing heart bet n the hemispheres, the corpus callosum. The corpus callosum is the main f ber tract that connects the central nervous system consists of the brain and the two hemispheres of the brain. The peripheral nervous system consists of all nerves and neurons outside of the central nervous system. In addition, each level of the spinal cord has refex pathways, such as the kne-jerk refex mentioned earlier. The vertebral column is divided into sections: cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, and coccygeal. The spinal cord is simi larly divided (excluding the coccygeal region, since we no longer have tails) into 31 segments. White matter Each segment has a right and a lef spinal nerve (axons and glial cells that enters and exits fom the vertebral column forming tracts inter connecting the brain. In looking at a confused with the nucleus inside each neuron), which are most commonly cross section of the spinal cord (Figure 2. The cell bodies of glial cells are we can se the peripheral region is made up of located in the white matter. Dorsal Central canal columns Gray matter A Guided Tour of Dorsal horn Ventral horn the Brain Dorsal root When we se a brain, the cerebral cortex, the outer Spinal Dorsal-root nerve layer, is most prominent. Dep within, at the base of the brain, root Ventral columns are structures that are found in most vertebrates and have evolved for hundreds of millions of years. The dorsal and ventral nerve immediately fatal, but it will likely afect such things roots are shown exiting and entering the cord; they fuse to form pe ripheral nerves. The cell bodies of peripheral sensory inputs reside as our abilit to make decisions as well as other behav in the dorsal-root ganglion and project their axons into the central iors that we consider to be most advanced in humans. Confu sion arises due to differences in how the head and body are Rostral (anterior) arranged in animals that walk on four legs versus humans, who are upright. The part of the brain toward the front is the rostral end (toward the frontal lobes); the posterior end is the caudal end (toward the occipi tal lobe). Along the top of his head is the dorsal surface, and the bottom surface of the brain is the ventral surface. Thus, the dorsal surface of the body and brain are now at right angles to each other When we consider the spinal cord, the coordinate systems (Figure 2). If we slice it from Similarly, along with the terms rostral, which still means nose to tail, that is a sagittal section. If we slice in a plane that separates dorsal from ventral, that is known as either an axial, transverse, or horizontal section.
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