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Second solid cancers after radiation therapy: possible implications for cancer therapy: a a systematic review of the epidemiologic studies collection of papers presented at the of the radiation dose–response relationship. Radiother Oncol breast tumors after radiotherapy for a first cancer 2005; 76(3): 270–277. An international collaboration among Second primary neoplasms in patients with cancer registries. Incidence of malignant factors associated with secondary sarcomas in skin tumours in 14,140 patients after grenz-ray childhood cancer survivors: a report from the treatment for benign skin disorders. Mortality from cancer and A report of a Task Group of Committee 1 of the other causes after radiotherapy for ankylosing International Commission of Radiological spondylitis. Tumours and other diseases following childhood X-ray treatment for ringworm of the scalp (Tinea capitis). Malignant of intracranial meningiomas in Nagasaki atomic transformation of a vestibular schwannoma after bomb survivors. Minim Invasive Neurosurg 2005; 48(6): the influence of pretreatment characteristics 334–339. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2009; after exposure to external radiation: a pooled 75(5): 1408–1414. Dose and time-response for breast cancer risk J Natl Cancer Inst 2006; 98(21): 1528–1537. Breast cancer risk after radiation treatment at infancy: potential consequences of 51. Rowe J, Grainger A, Walton L, Silcocks P, Radatz radiation-induced genomic instability. Otolaryngol Clin North Am 2009; Malignant neoplasms after radiation therapy 42(4): 717–729. Long-term safety and efficacy of Radiation and smoking effects on lung cancer stereotactic radiosurgery for vestibular incidence among atomic bomb survivors. Head and neck Head and neck Watch and wait paraganglioma One series documents the outcomes of expectant management with a long follow-up. Local control rate was blood vessel involvement, and a propensity for skull 87% with a high rate of reported complications of ≥46%. The excellent results reported in external beam and radiosurgery series has challenged this approach. The mean Radiosurgery is an appealing treatment modality for the duration of follow-up was 113 months. Most series reported single including sensorineural hearing loss and institution studies with limited numbers and follow-up. Although variably reported, documented Stereotactic radiosurgery: the review identified complications appeared infrequent. The total number of cranial nerve palsies pre and post radiosurgery was 306 and 279 respectively. Comparison of surgery, Ivan et al published a meta-analysis of tumour control external beam radiation therapy rates and treatment-related morbidity for glomus and radiosurgery jugulare tumours with 869 patients meeting the inclusion criteria. The majority of reports are single centre subtotal resection in addition to postoperative retrospective series with variable follow-up. In addition, radiosurgery in 97 patients and radiosurgery alone comparison between surgically and non-surgically in 339 patients. Tumour control rates were 86%, 69%, treated patients is difficult as historically, non-surgical 71% and 95% respectively. The meta-analysis also approaches were considered for advanced lesions, examined the rates of cranial neuropathy following recurrent disease or poor surgical candidates. Tumour control was achieved in surgery have advanced rapidly and older series are 78% of patients. Oncologic outcome in as the primary treatment for new and recurrent surgical management of jugular paraganglioma paragangliomas: is open surgical resection still and factors influencing outcomes. A meta-analysis of tumor control rates and Which paragangliomas of the head and neck have treatment-related morbidity for patients with a higher rate of malignancy? Clin Otolaryngol 2007; Irradiated paragangliomas of the head and neck: 32(1): 7–11.

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An immunologic basis is suspected but the evidence in support is indirect in the form of immunologic markers but not direct demons tration of the etiologic agent in the affected hepatocytes. HbxAg has a role in transactivation the transcription of both viral and cellular genes. Thus, hepatitis (orange positivity) but not in the hepatocytes during acute D develops when there is concomitant hepatitis B infection. In these individuals it to fulminant hepatitis but fulminant hepatitis is more likely persists for life providing protection against reinfection with in such simultaneous delta infection. Its persistence appearance of severe and fulminant acute attacks, beyond 10 weeks is indicative of development of chronic liver progression of carrier stage to chronic delta hepatitis or disease and carrier state. About are Southern Europe, Middle-East, South India and parts of 1-2% of volunteer blood donors and up to 5% of professional Africa. Hepatitis C infection is acquired by blood transfusions, blood products, haemodialysis, parenteral drug abuse and Figure 21. Carrier State Hepatitis E is an enterically-transmitted virus, previously An asymptomatic individual without manifest disease, labelled as epidemic or enterically transmitted variant of non harbouring infection with hepatotropic virus and capable of A non-B hepatitis. There can be 2 types of aged individuals, primarily seen in India, other Asian carriers: countries, Africa and central America. An ‘asymptomatic healthy carrier’ who does not suffer from the infection is generally acquired by contamination of ill-effects of the virus infection but is capable of transmitting. The predominant histologic changes are: variable degree of necrosis of hepatocytes, most marked in zone 3 (centrilobular); and mononuclear cellular infiltrate in the lobule. Mild degree of liver cell necrosis is seen as ballooning degeneration while acidophilic Councilman bodies (inbox) are indicative of more severe liver cell injury. Whereas approximately 10% of adults contracting hepatitis E it is 2-8 weeks (15-60 days). Icteric phase: the prodromal period is heralded by the may not show changes on liver biopsy. The Asymptomatic carriers with chronic disease may show diagnosis is based on deranged liver function tests. Asymptomatic Infection hyperglobulinaemia) and serologic detection of hepatitis these are cases who are detected incidentally to have antigens and antibodies. Post-icteric phase: the icteric phase lasting for about 1 raised serum transaminases or by detection of the presence to 4 weeks is usually followed by clinical and biochemical of antibodies but are otherwise asymptomatic. Acute Hepatitis acute hepatitis may develop severe form of the disease the most common consequence of all hepatotropic viruses (fulminant hepatitis); and 5-10% of cases progress on to is acute inflammatory involvement of the entire liver. Grossly, the liver is Clinically, acute hepatitis is categorised into 4 phases: slightly enlarged, soft and greenish. However, some non-viral causes 611 degree of liver cell injury but it is most marked in zone 3 of chronic hepatitis include: Wilson’s disease, α-1-antitrypsin (centrilobular zone): deficiency, chronic alcoholism, drug-induced injury and autoimmune diseases. The last named gives rise to i) Mildly injured hepatocytes appear swollen with autoimmune or lupoid hepatitis which is characterised by granular cytoplasm which tends to condense around the positive serum autoantibodies. Bridging necrosis is characterised by bands of the vulnerability of a patient of viral hepatitis to develop necrosis linking portal tracts to central hepatic veins, one chronic hepatitis are: impaired immunity and extremes of age central hepatic vein to another, or a portal tract to another at which the infection is first contracted. Inflammatory infiltrate: There is infiltration by hepatitis activity score (described below). The frequency and mononuclear inflammatory cells, usually in the portal severity with which hepatotropic viruses cause chronic tracts, but may permeate into the lobules. It is usually not possible to distinguish are as under: histologically between viral hepatitis of various etiologies, i) Necrosed hepatocytes at the limiting plate in but the following morphologic features may help in giving periportal zone. Chronic Hepatitis characterised by variable degree of changes in the portal tract. Chronic hepatitis is defined as continuing or relapsing i) Inflammatory cell infiltration by lymphocytes, plasma hepatic disease for more than 6 months with symptoms along cells and macrophages (triaditis). Majority of cases of chronic iii) Additionally, chronic hepatitis C may show lymphoid hepatitis are the result of infection with hepatotropic aggregates or follicles with reactive germinal centre and viruses—hepatitis B, hepatitis C and combined hepatitis B 612 Figure 21. Diagrammatic representation of pathologic changes in chronic hepatitis (B) contrasted with normal morphology (A). Photomicrograph on right (C) shows stellate-shaped portal triad, with extension of fibrous spurs into lobules.

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All incidence and biologic behaviour: these tumours are identical in morphology to those seen Appendiceal carcinoids, occur more frequently in 3rd elsewhere in the alimentary tract. Carcinoid tumour, a and 4th decades of life without any sex predilection, are often peculiar neoplasm most common in the midgut, is described solitary and behave as locally malignant tumours. Ileal carcinoids, on the other hand, are seen more often Carcinoid Tumour (Argentaffinoma) in later age (7th decade) with female preponderance, are more commonly multiple and behave like metastasising Carcinoid tumour or argentaffinoma is a generic term applied carcinomas. Ileal and granules which stain positively with silver salts (argentaffin gastric carcinoids are commonly multiple, whereas granules) or many stain after addition of exogenous reducing 3. Right-sided heart failure due to involvement of tricuspid and pulmonary valves and endocardium (page 451). Tryptophan is first appendiceal carcinoids commonly involve the tip of the hydroxylated to 5-hydroxytryptophan, then decarboxylated organ and are solitary (Fig. Midgut and clusters, all of which show characteristic palisading carcinoids have rich decarboxylating enzymes and are thus of the peripheral cells. The tumour cells are classically small, accounting for high frequency of carcinoid syndrome in them. The argentaffin carcinoids decarboxylating enzymes and, therefore, are less often show eosinophilic granules in the cytoplasm which stain associated with carcinoid syndrome. Carcinoid tumours that meta stasise, especially to the liver, are sometimes associated with Appendix is a vestigial organ which serves no useful purpose the carcinoid syndrome. The syndrome consists of the in human beings but instead becomes the site of trouble at following features: times. Intermittent attacks of flushing of the skin of face behind the caecum and varies in length from 4 to 20 cm 2. The mucosa has patchy distribution of crypts and the submucosa has abundant lymphoid tissue. Argentaffin and non argentaffin endocrine cells are present in the base of mucosal glands just as in the small intestine. The muscu laris of the appendix has two layers (inner circular and outer longitudinal) as elsewhere in the alimentary tract. Two important diseases involving the appendix are appendicitis and appendiceal carcinoids. The condition is seen more commonly in older opened appendix showing impacted faecolith in the lumen and exudate children and young adults, and is uncommon at the extremes on the serosa. Grossly, the appearance a diet with low bulk or cellulose and high protein intake more depends upon the stage at which the acutely-inflamed often causes appendicitis. In well obstruction of the lumen from various etiologic factors that developed acute inflammation called acute suppurative leads to increased intraluminal pressure. This presses upon appendicitis, the serosa is coated with fibrinopurulent the blood vessels to produce ischaemic injury which in turn exudate and engorged vessels on the surface. In further favours the bacterial proliferation and hence acute advanced cases called acute gangrenous appendicitis, there appendicitis. The common causes of appendicitis are as is necrosis and ulcerations of mucosa which extend under: through the wall so that the appendix becomes soft and friable and the surface is coated with greenish-black A. Haematogenous spread of generalised infection either case, an impacted foreign body, faecolith, or con 2. Microscopic appearance showing diagnostic neutrophilic infiltration into the muscularis. The patient presents with features of due to mucinous collection from benign mucinous acute abdomen as under: cystadenoma of the ovary or mucin-secreting carcinoma of 1. If appendicectomy is done at a later stage following acute attack (interval appendicectomy), the large bowel consists of 6 parts—the caecum, ascending pathological changes of healing by fibrosis of the wall and colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon and chronic inflammation are observed. If the condition is not adequately studded with appendices epiploicae which are small, rounded managed, the following complications may occur: collections of fatty tissue covered by peritoneum. A perforated appendix as occurs in gangrenous appendicitis may cause localised or generalised Histologically, the wall of large bowel consists of 4 layers as peritonitis. This is due to rupture of an appendix the mucosa lacks villi and there is preponderance of giving rise to localised abscess in the right iliac fossa. The lymphoid abscess may spread to other sites such as between the liver tissue is less abundant than in the small bowel but lymphoid and diaphragm (subphrenic abscess), into the pelvis between follicles are seen in the caecum and rectum. The muscularis propria of the large intestine is quite peculiar—the inner circular muscle layer ensheaths whole 3.

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The shot should not be used more than 2 years in a row because it can cause a tempo rary loss of bone density. You squeeze the ring between your thumb and index finger and insert it into your vagina. You wear the ring for 3 weeks, take it out for the week that you have your period, and then put in a new ring. Women who delivered by cesarean section or have other risk factors for blood clots, such as obesity, history of blood clots, smoking, or preeclampsia, should wait six weeks. Implantable devices — Devices that are inserted into the body and left in place for a few years. Implantable Rod this is a matchstick-size, flexible rod that is put under the skin of the upper arm. The rod releases a progestin, which causes changes in the lining of the uterus and the cervical mucus to keep the sperm from joining an egg. It releases a small amount of copper into the uterus, which prevents the sperm from reaching and fertilizing the egg. It releases progestin into the uterus, which keeps the ovaries from releasing an egg and causes the cervical mucus to thicken so page 5 sperm can’t reach the egg. It also affects the ability of a fertilized egg to successfully implant in the uterus. Department of Health and Human Services, Office on Women’s Health F r e q u e n t ly As k e d qu e s t i o n s Permanent Birth Control Methods — For people who are sure they never want to have a child or they do not want more children Sterilization Implant (Essure) Essure is the first non-surgical method of sterilizing women. A thin tube is used to thread a tiny spring-like device through the vagina and uterus into each fallopian tube. It can take about 3 months for the scar tissue to grow, so it’s important to use another form of birth control during this time. Sometimes, a woman having cesarean birth has the procedure done at the same time, so as to avoid having additional surgery later. A simple test can be done to check if all the sperm is gone; it is called a semen analysis. Emergency Contraception — Used if a woman’s primary method of birth control fails. It can also mean that a birth control method was used but it was used incorrectly, or did not work (like a condom breaking). A single dose treatment works as well as two doses and does not have more side effects. It works by stopping the ovaries from releasing an egg or keeping the sperm from joining with the egg. For the best chances for it to work, take the pill as soon as possible after unprotect ed sex. Department of Health and Human Services, Office on Women’s Health F r e q u e n t ly As k e d qu e s t i o n s Q: Can all types of birth control right way to use them. The male latex condom is the Talk with your doctor if you have ques only birth control method proven to tions. For example, information, see Will birth control pills some people don’t know you can put. Be sure you know the Method Failure rate Some side effects and risks (the number of pregnancies expected per 100 women) Sterilization surgery Less than 1 Pain for women Bleeding Complications from surgery Ectopic (tubal) pregnancy Sterilization implant Less than 1 Pain for women Ectopic (tubal) pregnancy (Essure) Sterilization surgery Less than 1 Pain for men Bleeding Complications from surgery page 7 U. Department of Health and Human Services, Office on Women’s Health F r e q u e n t ly As k e d qu e s t i o n s Method Failure rate Some side effects and risks (the number of pregnancies expected per 100 women) Implantable rod Less than 1 Acne (Implanon) Weight gain Might not work as well for Ovarian cysts women who are overweight Mood changes or obese. Department of Health and Human Services, Office on Women’s Health F r e q u e n t ly As k e d qu e s t i o n s Method Failure rate Some side effects and risks (the number of pregnancies expected per 100 women) Oral contraceptives 5 Same as combination pill (continuous/extended Spotting or bleeding between use, or “no-period periods Being overweight may pill”) increase the chance of getting Hard to know if pregnant pregnant while using the pill. Skin patch 5 Similar to side effects for the (Ortho Evra) combination pill May not work as well in Greater exposure to estrogen women weighing more than than with other methods 198 pounds. Vaginal ring 5 Similar to side effects for the (NuvaRing) combination pill Swelling of the vagina Irritation Vaginal discharge Male condom 11–16 Allergic reactions Diaphragm with sper 15 Irritation micide Allergic reactions Urinary tract infection Toxic shock if left in too long Sponge with spermi 16–32 Irritation cide (Today Sponge) Allergic reactions Hard time taking it out Toxic shock if left in too long Female condom 20 Irritation Allergic reactions page 9 U. Department of Health and Human Services, Office on Women’s Health F r e q u e n t ly As k e d qu e s t i o n s Method Failure rate Some side effects and risks (the number of pregnancies expected per 100 women) Natural family planning 25 None (rhythm method) Spermicide alone 30 Irritation Allergic reactions It works best if used along Urinary tract infection. Fatigue Should not be used as Headache and dizziness regular birth control; only in emergencies.

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Presence of nanobacteria in psammoma bodies of ovarian cancer: evidence for pathogenetic role in intratumoral biomineralization. Online survey of patients with breast cancer on complementary and alternative medicine. Everyday Homoeopathy, 2nd edition, British Homoeopathic journal, Volume 86, Issue 4, October 1997, Page 240 Hughes-Games, J. Insights into homoeopathy: Frank Bodman, British Homoeopathic journal, Volume 80, Issue 1, January 1991, Page 64 Huh, Y. Mastering Homeopathy—Accurate Prescribing for a Successful Daily Practice Homeopathy, Volume 94, Issue 3, July 2005, Pages 209-210 Hunton, M. Proceedings of the 1989 Professional Case Conference of the International Foundation for Homeopathy (Small Remedies and Interesting Cases). British Homoeopathic journal, Volume 79, Issue 3, July 1990, Pages 190-191 *Curated by Iris Bell M. Extended Network Generalized Entanglement Theory: therapeutic mechanisms, empirical predictions, and investigations. Oscillatory effects in a homeopathic clinical trial: an explanation using complexity theory, and implications for clinical practice. Homeopathic Rhus toxicodendron treatment increased the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in primary cultured mouse chondrocytes. Intracellular heavy metal nanoparticle storage: progressive accumulation within lymph nodes with transformation from chronic inflammation to malignancy. Hormetic dose–responses in nanotechnology studies Science of the Total Environment 487 (2014) 361–374. Characterization of inhalable, thoracic, and respirable fractions and ultrafine particle exposure during grinding, brazing, and welding activities in a mechanical engineering factory. History of homoeopathy in Saxony British Homoeopathic journal, Volume 86, Issue 2, April 1997, Page 101 Imberechts J. Homoeopathy in the European Community British Homoeopathic journal, Volume 83, Issue 1, January 1994, Pages 1-2 Imreh, G. Homoeopathy for Sports, Exercise and Dance Physiotherapy, Volume 87, Issue 7, July 2001, Page 386 Inglis, B. Nanotechnologies — terminology and definitions for nano objects — Nanoparticle, nanofibre and nanoplate. Demographic characteristics and needs of families at an urban, low-income, multicultural paediatric clinic Paediatr Child Health. The homeopathic preparation Vertigoheel versus Ginkgo biloba in the treatment of vertigo in an elderly population: a double-blinded, randomized, controlled clinical trial. Effect of homeopathic treatment of 60 Japanese patients with chronic skin disease. Comparison of Nanoparticle Size and Electrophoretic Mobility Measurements Using a Carbon-Nanotube-Based Coulter Counter, Dynamic Light Scattering, Transmission Electron Microscopy, and Phase Analysis Light Scattering. The Blackie Memorial Lecture 1999: Homeopathy versus orthodoxy—the current state of play, British Homoeopathic journal, Volume 89, Issue 1, January 2000, Pages 17-25 Ives G. Homoeopathy: A Critical Appraisal British Homoeopathic journal, Volume 87, Issue 3, July 1998, Pages 173-174 Ives G. Faculty of Homoeopathy: Midlands branch, British Homoeopathic journal, Volume 70, Issue 3, July 1981, Page 165 Jack, R. Effectiveness research in homeopathy—methodology and practical considerations, British Homoeopathic journal, Volume 89, Supplement 1, July 2000, Page S47 Jacobs J. Homeopathy for acute otitis media—time for a definitive trial Homeopathy, Volume 101, Issue 1, January 2012, Page 3 Jacobs, J. Is homeopathy effective for hot flashes and other estrogen-withdrawal symptoms in breast cancer survivors? Improving the Success of Homeopathy 4: Royal London Homoeopathic Hospital: 89 Jacobs, J. Homeopathy for menopausal symptoms in breast cancer survivors: a preliminary randomized controlled trial. Treatment of acute childhood diarrhea with homeopathic medicine: a randomized clinical trial in Nicaragua. Homeopathic treatment of acute childhood diarrhea: results from a clinical trial in Nepal. Homeopathy for childhood diarrhea: combined results and metaanalysis from three randomized, controlled clinical trials.

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