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The science of nature and nurture has demonstrated that genetic differences among people are vital to human moral equality, freedom, and self-determination, not opposed to them. As Mordecai Kaplan said about the role of the past in Jewish theology, genetics gets a vote, not a veto, in the determination of human behavior. The Nature-Nurture Question 231 Outside Resources Web: Institute for Behavioral Genetics. Can you think of a human characteristic for which genetic differences would play almost no role Identical twins are more similar than fraternal twins for the trait of aggressiveness, as well as for criminal behavior. If it can be shown that a violent criminal had violent parents, should it make a difference in culpability or sentencing The Nature-Nurture Question 232 Vocabulary Adoption study A behavior genetic research method that involves comparison of adopted children to their adoptive and biological parents. Behavioral genetics the empirical science of how genes and environments combine to generate behavior. Heritability coefficient An easily misinterpreted statistical construct that purports to measure the role of genetics in the explanation of differences among individuals. Quantitative genetics Scientific and mathematical methods for inferring genetic and environmental processes based on the degree of genetic and environmental similarity among organisms. Sources of human psychological differences: the Minnesota study of twins reared apart. Individual differences in television viewing in early childhood: Nature as well as nurture. Unit 3 Sensation and Perception 15 Vision Simona Buetti & Alejandro Lleras Vision is the sensory modality that transforms light into a psychological experience of the world around you, with minimal bodily effort. This module provides an overview of the most significant steps in this transformation and strategies that your brain uses to achieve this visual understanding of the environment. You look up at the sky, and thousands of photons from distant stars come crashing into your retina, a light-sensitive structure at the back of your eyeball. These photons are millions of years old and have survived a trip across the universe, only to run into one of your photoreceptors. Tough luck: in one thousandth of a Vision 236 second, this little bit of light energy becomes the fuel to a photochemical reaction known as photoactivation. The light energy becomes neural energy and triggers a cascade of neural activity that, a few hundredths of a second later, will result in your becoming aware of that distant star. You can recognize friends coming to meet you before you are able to hear them coming, ripe fruits from green ones on trees without having to taste them and before reaching out to grab them. You can also tell how quickly a ball is moving in your direction (Will it hit you First, light enters the eyeball through a tiny hole known as the pupil and, thanks to the refractive properties of your cornea and lens, this light signal gets projected sharply into the retina (see Outside Resources for links to a more detailed description of the eye structure). There, light is transduced into neural energy by about 200 million photoreceptor cells. Diagram of the human eye [Image: wikimedia commons] this is where the information carried by the light about distant objects and colors starts being encoded by our brain. Rods give us sensitivity under dim lighting conditions and allow us to see at night. Cones allow us to see fine details in bright light and give us the sensation of color.

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Conclusion Are emotions just fleeting experiences with no consequence beyond our momentary comfort or discomfort This module examined how, exactly, emotion experience might be linked to well-being. The obvious answer to this question is: of course, experiencing as much positive emotions and as little negative emotions as possible is good for us. But although this is true in general, recent research suggests that this obvious answer is incomplete and sometimes even wrong. Emotion Experience and Well-Being 1071 Outside Resources Journal: If you are interested in direct access to research on emotion, take a look at the journal Emotion. Much research confirms the relative benefits of positive emotions and relative costs of negative emotions. We described some contexts that influence the effects of emotional experiences on well being. How could you design an experiment that tests(A) When and why it is beneficial to feel a negative emotion such as sadness Emotion Experience and Well-Being 1072 Vocabulary Emotion An experiential, physiological, and behavioral response to a personally meaningful stimulus. Emotion coherence the degree to which emotional responses (subjective experience, behavior, physiology, etc. Emotion fluctuation the degree to which emotions vary or change in intensity over time. Well-being the experience of mental and physical health and the absence of disorder. The importance of being flexible: the ability to both enhance and suppress emotional expression predicts long-term adjustment. Affective style and affective disorders: Perspectives from affective neuroscience. Happiness is the frequency, not the intensity, of positive versus negative affect. Intraindividual variability in affect: Reliability, validity, and personality correlates. Understanding the social effects of emotion regulation: the mediating role of authenticity for individual differences in suppression. Open hearts build Emotion Experience and Well-Being 1074 lives: Positive emotions, induced through loving-kindness meditation, build consequential personal resources. Open hearts build lives: Positive emotions, induced through loving-kindness meditation, build consequential personal resources. Individual differences in two emotion regulation processes: implications for affect, relationships, and well-being. Happiness is best kept stable: Positive emotion variability is associated with poorer psychological health. When feeling bad can be good: Mixed emotions benefit physical health across adulthood. Feelings change: Accounting for individual differences in the temporal dynamics of affect. Turning adversity to Emotion Experience and Well-Being 1075 advantage: On the virtues of the coactivation of positive and negative emotions. The agony of victory and thrill of defeat: Mixed emotional reactions to disappointing wins and relieving losses. Reduced amygdala response to fearful expressions in children and adolescents with callous-unemotional traits and disruptive behavior disorders.

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Based on the amount of x-rays blocked by the body organs, the image will appear in different shades of gray. The x-ray beam sources send multiple small high-energy x-ray beams through the body. Then, a fast computer will take the information gathered from the scanner to produce images of the body. Radiologists will analyze these images using sophisticated computer programs and high-quality monitors to detect diseases in the body. When a contrast material is introduced to the bloodstream during the procedure, it clearly defines the blood vessels being examined by making them appear bright white. Prior to, or on the day of the procedure, you may be asked to complete a questionnaire to ensure your safety during this procedure. Straps and pillows may be used to help you maintain the correct position and remain still during the exam. In some cases, especially in children and patients with fragile and small veins, the contrast may be hand-injected using a syringe. A single scan takes approximately one to two minutes, but multiple scans may be required. If your heart beats too fast, it may be temporarily slowed down with medication to obtain clear images of the heart. If you receive heart rate control medication, you will be closely monitored during and after the procedure. Any motion, including breathing and body movements, can lead to artifacts on the images. This loss of image quality can resemble the blurring seen on a photograph taken of a moving object. Occasionally, sedation is required for children to keep them still during scanning. Your doctor will help determine if sedation is needed and, if so, will arrange it. Preparation for sedation may include no eating and drinking for several hours before the exam to prevent complications. Also, an extended close observation following the scan may be required until the medication used for sedation wears off. When the exam is complete, you will be asked to wait until the technologist verifies that the images are of high enough quality for accurate interpretation. Following the exam, the technologist will remove the intravenous catheter and place a bandage over the needle puncture site. If an intravenous contrast material is used, you will feel a pin prick when the needle is inserted into your vein. For example, sometimes a parent wearing a lead shield may stay in the room with their child. However, the technologist will always be able to see, hear and speak with you through a built-in intercom system. A radiologist, a doctor specially trained to supervise and interpret radiology exams, will analyze the images. Sometimes a follow-up exam is done because a potential abnormality needs further evaluation with additional views or a special imaging technique. A follow-up exam may also be done to see if there has been any change in an abnormality over time. Follow-up exams are sometimes the best way to see if treatment is working or if an abnormality is stable or has changed. Another option is to undergo a different exam that does not require iodinated contrast material. In patients who are at risk for kidney failure and who already have borderline kidney function, administering iodinated contrast material could potentially further damage kidney function. Check with your referring doctor and radiologist to obtain more information regarding this risk.

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However, with improvements in valve design, it will likely also be employed in younger and lower risk patients. Note the detail of the valve that can be seen including the hinge points of the Although valve replacement is a very efective way to treat valve disease, valve leafets. In the left upper and lower hand panels, the valve is a radiologist Computed Tomography. The left-hand leafet Rotterdam, the is still stuck, but there is a reduction in the amount of Netherlands. His PhD thesis concerned epicardial ultra sound in (minimally invasive) coronary artery bypass surgery. He completed a fellowship in cardiovas glucose which accumulates in infected tissue, Figure 3 cular radiology as well as successfully passed endocarditis can now even be diagnosed the European Diploma in Cardiac Imaging before structural damage occurs. Note the avid tracer uptake ising in cardiovascular and thoracic radiology around the valve indicative of active infection. With the development of new very and serves as daily supervisor for multiple specifc tracers that bind to specifc strains of PhD students. His main research interests bacteria, or even antibiotics, patient-tailored include imaging of (prosthetic) heart valves, diagnosis, treatment monitoring and adapta aortic disease, endocarditis, imaging to opti tions are on the horizon. With the older population growing, an increasing number of people will sufer from cardiovascular Figure 1 Figure 2 disease, myocardial and brain infarction, heart failure, atrial fbrillation, cognitive decline or eventually dementia. This combination of cardiac and Atherosclerosis is a systemic disease which progresses Cardiovascular diseases of the brain and heart are espe during a lifespan with exposure to lifestyle factors such as cially afected by atherosclerosis of the carotid (yellow brain disease is a growing global health burden with a large socioeco 1 smoking, obesity, and a sedentary lifestyle. Although additional right-to-left venous emboli through an open and an acute rise of intracranial pressure, and sion-making thresholds4. These patients often advocated for persons with intermediate of the heart (patent foramen ovale or atrial show a temporary cardiac dysfunction and One of the earliest measures of vascular risk, there is also beneft in populations with septal defect). Another source of ischaemic rise in troponines, similar to other forms of disease is increased arterial stifness. Although the cardiac can be measured in various indirect ways subgroups that may beneft from a low dose of the aorta or carotid/vertebral arteries. Acute emotional and even days is hard to fnd, so please be gentle with physical stress can lead to a detrimental cas this heart of mine. As professor in radiology of the heart-brain axis, she investigates the heart-brain connection in various diseases such as atherosclerosis, cardi oembolic stroke and stress cardiomyopathy, as well as interaction with gender, ethnicity, genetic background and lifestyle. Her cardiovascular research focuses on imaging of cardiomyopa thies, cardiac failure and sports cardiology. The goal is to decrease invasive centres of people sufering from these diseases is still increasing. Early diagnosis procedures in favour of non-invasive diagnos and adequate treatment is crucial and has helped to reduce mortality over tic testing, without jeopardising diagnostic Full coverage by health insurance compa the last decades dramatically. The latter has already nies, in particular by compulsory health performed in 1929, almost 100 years ago, by Werner For mann, a sur been proven in the last decade for almost all insurance geon in Berlin as a self-experiment. Almost 80% of contributing and aortic diseases, mainly to plan interven from all over Europe could be documented ever, the 300 contributing institutes come users used a 1. It also serves as a tool for quality also radiologists in private practice; meaning (Figure 2). All of indications are equally distributed should be referred to a non-invasive imag 0. The combined presence of the following features defne typical angina pectoris if three of the features are Stress-Regadenoson laboratory present and atypical angina pectoris if two are present, while one or none of the features defnes non-cardiac chest pain.

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